One of the core principles of the Landscape toolbox is that it should be built upon a foundation of peer-reviewed science. Below are some of the publications and software tools related to the Landscape Toolbox project.


Gillan, J. K., Karl, J. W., Duniway, M., & Elaksher, A. (2014). Modeling vegetation heights from high resolution stereo aerial photography: An application for broad-scale rangeland monitoring. Journal of Environmental Management, 144, 226–235. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.05.028 (Cite)
Karl, J. W., Gillan, J. K., Barger, N. N., Herrick, J. E., & Duniway, M. C. (2014). Interpretation of high-resolution imagery for detecting vegetation cover composition change after fuels reduction treatments in woodlands. Ecological Indicators, 45, 570–578. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2014.05.017 (Cite)
Karl, J. W., Taylor, J., & Bobo, M. (2014). A double-sampling approach to deriving training and validation data for remotely-sensed vegetation products. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 35(5), 1936–1955. doi:10.1080/01431161.2014.880820 (Cite)


Herrick, J. E., Urama, K. C., Karl, J. W., Boos, J., Johnson, M. V., Shepherd, K. D., … West, L. T. (2013). A Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS) Based on Local and Scientific Knowledge of Land Productivity and Resilience. Presented at the UNCCD Scientific Conference, United National Convention to Combat Desertification. (Cite)
Karl, J. W., & Herrick, J. E. (2013). Rangeland Mashups and Wikicology? Implementing collaborative internet technologies for rangeland management. Rangelands, 35, 1–11. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-12-00069.1 (Cite)
Herrick, J. E., Urama, K. C., Karl, J. W., Boos, J., Johnson, M. V., Shepherd, K. D., … West, L. T. (2013). The global Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS): supporting evidence-based, site-specific land use and management through cloud computing, mobile apps and crowdsourcing. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 68, 5A–12A. doi:10.2489/jswc.68.1.5A (Cite)


Taylor, J. J., Toevs, G. R., Karl, J. W., Bobo, M. R., Karl, M. S., Miller, S. N., & Spurrier, C. (2012). AIM-Monitoring: a component of the National Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring Strategy. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, National Operations Center. (Cite)
Karl, J. W., Herrick, J. E., & Browning, D. (2012). A strategy for rangeland management based on best-available knowledge and information. Rangeland Ecology & Management, 65, 638–646. doi:10.2111/REM-D-12-00021.1 (Cite)
Karl, J. W., Duniway, M. C., & Schrader, T. S. (2012). A technique for estimating rangeland canopy-gap size distributions from very-high-resolution digital imagery. Rangeland Ecology and Management, 65(2), 196–207. doi:10.2111/REM-D-11-00006.1 (Cite)
Karl, J. W., Duniway, M. C., Nusser, S. M., Opsomer, J. D., & Unnasch, R. S. (2012). Using Very-Large Scale Aerial (VLSA) Imagery for Rangeland Monitoring and Assessment: Some Statistical Considerations. Rangeland Ecology & Management, 65, 330–339. doi:10.2111/rem-d-11-00102.1 (Cite)
Herrick, J. E., Duniway, M. C., Pyke, D. A., Bestelmeyer, B. T., Wills, S. A., Brown, J. R., … Havstad, K. M. (2012). A holistic strategy for adaptive management. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 67(4), 105A–113A. doi:10.2489/jswc.67.4.105A (Cite)
Herrick, J. E., Brown, J. R., Bestelmeyer, B. T., Andrews, S. S., Baldi, G., Davies, J., … Twomlow, S. (2012). Revolutionary Land Use Change in the 21st Century: Is (Rangeland) Science Relevant? Rangeland Ecology & Management, 65, 590–598. doi:10.2111/rem-d-11-00186.1 (Cite)


Toevs, G. R., Karl, J. W., Taylor, J. J., Spurrier, C. S., Karl, M. “Sherm,” Bobo, M. R., & Herrick, J. E. (2011). Consistent Indicators and Methods and a Scalable Sample Design to Meet Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring Information Needs Across Scales. Rangelands, 33, 14–20. doi:10.2111/1551-501x-33.4.14 (Cite)
Schrader, T. S., & Duniway, M. C. (2011). Image Interpreter Tool: An ArcGIS Tool for Estimating Vegetation Cover From High-Resolution Imagery. Rangelands, 33, 35–40. doi:10.2111/1551-501x-33.4.35 (Cite)
Riginos, C., Herrick, J. E., Sundaresan, S. R., Farley, C., & Belnap, J. (2011). A Simple Graphical Approach to Quantitative Monitoring of Rangelands. Rangelands, 33, 6–13. doi:10.2111/1551-501x-33.4.6 (Cite)
Karl, J. W., Colson, K., & Swartz, H. (2011). Rangeland Assessment and Monitoring Methods Guide. Rangelands, 33, 48–54. doi:10.2111/1551-501x-33.4.48 (Cite)
Karl, J. W. (2011). Turning Information Into Knowledge for Rangeland Management. Rangelands, 33, 3–5. doi:10.2111/1551-501x-33.4.3 (Cite)
Hutchinson, B., Pfander, J., Tanaka, J., & Clark, J. (2011). Rangelands West/Global Rangelands, eXtension Rangelands, and the Range Science Information System: A Suite of New Web Resources. Rangelands, 33, 55–63. doi:10.2111/1551-501x-33.4.55 (Cite)
Goodrich, D. C., Guertin, D. P., Burns, I. S., Nearing, M. A., Stone, J. J., Wei, H., … Jolley, L. (2011). AGWA: The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool to Inform Rangeland Management. Rangelands, 33, 41–47. doi:10.2111/1551-501x-33.4.41 (Cite)
Courtright, E. M., & Van Zee, J. W. (2011). The Database for Inventory, Monitoring, and Assessment (DIMA). Rangelands, 33, 21–26. doi:10.2111/1551-501x-33.4.21 (Cite)
Booth, D. T., & Cox, S. E. (2011). Art to Science: Tools for Greater Objectivity in Resource Monitoring. Rangelands, 33, 27–34. doi:10.2111/1551-501x-33.4.27 (Cite)
Mackinnon, W. C., Karl, J. W., Toevs, G. R., Taylor, J. J., Karl, M. S., Spurrier, C. S., & Herrick, J. E. (2011). BLM core terrestrial indcators and methods (No. Tech Note 440). Denver, CO: US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, National Operations Center. Retrieved from (Cite)
Duniway, M. C., Karl, J. W., Schrader, S., Baquera, N., & Herrick, J. E. (2011). Rangeland and pasture monitoring: an approach to interpretation of high-resolution imagery focused on observer calibration for repeatability. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184(6), 3789–3804. doi:10.1007/s10661-011-2224-2 (Cite)


Townsend, L. (2010). Ecological Site Descriptions: Developmental Considerations for Woodlands and Forests. Rangelands, 32, 37–42. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-10-00079.1 (Cite)
Talbot, C. J., Campbell, S. B., Hansen, M., & Price, A. B. (2010). Information Technologies and Ecological Site Descriptions. Rangelands, 32, 55–59. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-10-00084.1 (Cite)
Stringham, T. K., & Repp, J. P. (2010). Ecological Site Descriptions: Consideration for Riparian Systems. Rangelands, 32, 43–48. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-10-00085.1 (Cite)
Moseley, K., Shaver, P. L., Sanchez, H., & Bestelmeyer, B. T. (2010). Ecological Site Development: A Gentle Introduction. Rangelands, 32, 16–22. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-10-00087.1 (Cite)
Knapp, C. N., Fernandez-Gimenez, M. E., & Kachergis, E. (2010). The Role of Local Knowledge in State-and-Transition Model Development. Rangelands, 32, 31–36. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-10-00083.1 (Cite)
Karl, J. W., & Maurer, B. A. (2010). Multivariate correlations between imagery and field measurements across scales: comparing pixel aggregation and image segmentation. Landscape Ecology, 24, 591–605. doi:10.1007/s10980-009-9439-4 (Cite)
Karl, J. W., & Maurer, B. A. (2010). Spatial dependence of predictions from image segmentation: a variogram-based method to determine appropriate scales for producing land-management informatino. Ecological Informatics, 5, 194–202. doi:10.1016/j.ecoinf.2010.02.004 (Cite)
Karl, J. W., Laliberte, A. S., & Rango, A. (2010). Spatial dependence of predictions from image segmentation: a method to determine appropriate scales for producing land-management information (Vol. Vol. XXXVIII-4/C7). Presented at the GEOBIA 2010. (Cite)
Karl, J. W., Herrick, J. E., Eaton, M., & Mackinnon, C. (2010). Uses and benefits of consistent indicators and scalable sample design for NLCS local-to-national data needs. In M. Eaton & P. B. Landres (Eds.), . Presented at the Decade of Discovery in the National Landscape Conservation System, Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station. (Cite)
Karl, J. W., & Herrick, J. E. (2010). Monitoring and Assessment Based on Ecological Sites. Rangelands, 32, 60–64. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-10-00082.1 (Cite)
Karl, J. W. (2010). Spatial predictions of cover attributes of rangeland ecosystems using regression kriging and remote sensing. Rangeland Ecology and Management, 63, 335–349. doi:10.2111/RED-D-09-00074.1 (Cite)
Gilgert, W., & Zack, S. (2010). Integrating Multiple Ecosystem Services Into Ecological Site Descriptions. Rangelands, 32, 49–54. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-10-00086.1 (Cite)
Duniway, M. C., Bestelmeyer, B. T., & Tugel, A. (2010). Soil Processes and Properties That Distinguish Ecological Sites and States. Rangelands, 32, 9–15. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-10-00090.1 (Cite)
Brown, J. R. (2010). Ecological Sites: Their History, Status, and Future. Rangelands, 32, 5–8. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-10-00089.1 (Cite)
Bestelmeyer, B. T., Moseley, K., Shaver, P. L., Sanchez, H., Briske, D. D., & Fernandez-Gimenez, M. E. (2010). Practical Guidance for Developing State-and-Transition Models. Rangelands, 32, 23–30. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-10-00077.1 (Cite)
Bestelmeyer, B. T., & Brown, J. R. (2010). An Introduction to the Special Issue on Ecological Sites. Rangelands, 32, 3–4. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-10-00088.1 (Cite)

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