One of the core principles of the Landscape toolbox is that it should be built upon a foundation of peer-reviewed science. Below are some of the publications and software tools related to the Landscape Toolbox project.


Gillan, J. K., Karl, J. W., Duniway, M., & Elaksher, A. (2014). Modeling vegetation heights from high resolution stereo aerial photography: An application for broad-scale rangeland monitoring. Journal of Environmental Management, 144, 226–235. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2014.05.028 (Cite)
Karl, J. W., Gillan, J. K., Barger, N. N., Herrick, J. E., & Duniway, M. C. (2014). Interpretation of high-resolution imagery for detecting vegetation cover composition change after fuels reduction treatments in woodlands. Ecological Indicators, 45, 570–578. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2014.05.017 (Cite)
Karl, J. W., Taylor, J., & Bobo, M. (2014). A double-sampling approach to deriving training and validation data for remotely-sensed vegetation products. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 35(5), 1936–1955. doi:10.1080/01431161.2014.880820 (Cite)


Herrick, J. E., Urama, K. C., Karl, J. W., Boos, J., Johnson, M. V., Shepherd, K. D., … West, L. T. (2013). A Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS) Based on Local and Scientific Knowledge of Land Productivity and Resilience. Presented at the UNCCD Scientific Conference, United National Convention to Combat Desertification. (Cite)
Herrick, J. E., Urama, K. C., Karl, J. W., Boos, J., Johnson, M. V., Shepherd, K. D., … West, L. T. (2013). The global Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS): supporting evidence-based, site-specific land use and management through cloud computing, mobile apps and crowdsourcing. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 68, 5A–12A. doi:10.2489/jswc.68.1.5A (Cite)
Karl, J. W., & Herrick, J. E. (2013). Rangeland Mashups and Wikicology? Implementing collaborative internet technologies for rangeland management. Rangelands, 35, 1–11. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-12-00069.1 (Cite)


Herrick, J. E., Brown, J. R., Bestelmeyer, B. T., Andrews, S. S., Baldi, G., Davies, J., … Twomlow, S. (2012). Revolutionary Land Use Change in the 21st Century: Is (Rangeland) Science Relevant? Rangeland Ecology & Management, 65, 590–598. doi:10.2111/rem-d-11-00186.1 (Cite)
Herrick, J. E., Duniway, M. C., Pyke, D. A., Bestelmeyer, B. T., Wills, S. A., Brown, J. R., … Havstad, K. M. (2012). A holistic strategy for adaptive management. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 67(4), 105A–113A. doi:10.2489/jswc.67.4.105A (Cite)
Karl, J. W., Duniway, M. C., Nusser, S. M., Opsomer, J. D., & Unnasch, R. S. (2012). Using Very-Large Scale Aerial (VLSA) Imagery for Rangeland Monitoring and Assessment: Some Statistical Considerations. Rangeland Ecology & Management, 65, 330–339. doi:10.2111/rem-d-11-00102.1 (Cite)
Karl, J. W., Duniway, M. C., & Schrader, T. S. (2012). A technique for estimating rangeland canopy-gap size distributions from very-high-resolution digital imagery. Rangeland Ecology and Management, 65(2), 196–207. doi:10.2111/REM-D-11-00006.1 (Cite)
Karl, J. W., Herrick, J. E., & Browning, D. (2012). A strategy for rangeland management based on best-available knowledge and information. Rangeland Ecology & Management, 65, 638–646. doi:10.2111/REM-D-12-00021.1 (Cite)
Taylor, J. J., Toevs, G. R., Karl, J. W., Bobo, M. R., Karl, M. S., Miller, S. N., & Spurrier, C. (2012). AIM-Monitoring: a component of the National Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring Strategy. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, National Operations Center. (Cite)


Booth, D. T., & Cox, S. E. (2011). Art to Science: Tools for Greater Objectivity in Resource Monitoring. Rangelands, 33, 27–34. doi:10.2111/1551-501x-33.4.27 (Cite)
Courtright, E. M., & Van Zee, J. W. (2011). The Database for Inventory, Monitoring, and Assessment (DIMA). Rangelands, 33, 21–26. doi:10.2111/1551-501x-33.4.21 (Cite)
Goodrich, D. C., Guertin, D. P., Burns, I. S., Nearing, M. A., Stone, J. J., Wei, H., … Jolley, L. (2011). AGWA: The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool to Inform Rangeland Management. Rangelands, 33, 41–47. doi:10.2111/1551-501x-33.4.41 (Cite)
Hutchinson, B., Pfander, J., Tanaka, J., & Clark, J. (2011). Rangelands West/Global Rangelands, eXtension Rangelands, and the Range Science Information System: A Suite of New Web Resources. Rangelands, 33, 55–63. doi:10.2111/1551-501x-33.4.55 (Cite)
Karl, J. W. (2011). Turning Information Into Knowledge for Rangeland Management. Rangelands, 33, 3–5. doi:10.2111/1551-501x-33.4.3 (Cite)
Karl, J. W., Colson, K., & Swartz, H. (2011). Rangeland Assessment and Monitoring Methods Guide. Rangelands, 33, 48–54. doi:10.2111/1551-501x-33.4.48 (Cite)
Riginos, C., Herrick, J. E., Sundaresan, S. R., Farley, C., & Belnap, J. (2011). A Simple Graphical Approach to Quantitative Monitoring of Rangelands. Rangelands, 33, 6–13. doi:10.2111/1551-501x-33.4.6 (Cite)
Schrader, T. S., & Duniway, M. C. (2011). Image Interpreter Tool: An ArcGIS Tool for Estimating Vegetation Cover From High-Resolution Imagery. Rangelands, 33, 35–40. doi:10.2111/1551-501x-33.4.35 (Cite)
Toevs, G. R., Karl, J. W., Taylor, J. J., Spurrier, C. S., Karl, M. “Sherm,” Bobo, M. R., & Herrick, J. E. (2011). Consistent Indicators and Methods and a Scalable Sample Design to Meet Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring Information Needs Across Scales. Rangelands, 33, 14–20. doi:10.2111/1551-501x-33.4.14 (Cite)
Duniway, M. C., Karl, J. W., Schrader, S., Baquera, N., & Herrick, J. E. (2011). Rangeland and pasture monitoring: an approach to interpretation of high-resolution imagery focused on observer calibration for repeatability. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184(6), 3789–3804. doi:10.1007/s10661-011-2224-2 (Cite)
Mackinnon, W. C., Karl, J. W., Toevs, G. R., Taylor, J. J., Karl, M. S., Spurrier, C. S., & Herrick, J. E. (2011). BLM core terrestrial indcators and methods (No. Tech Note 440). Denver, CO: US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, National Operations Center. Retrieved from (Cite)


Bestelmeyer, B. T., & Brown, J. R. (2010). An Introduction to the Special Issue on Ecological Sites. Rangelands, 32, 3–4. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-10-00088.1 (Cite)
Bestelmeyer, B. T., Moseley, K., Shaver, P. L., Sanchez, H., Briske, D. D., & Fernandez-Gimenez, M. E. (2010). Practical Guidance for Developing State-and-Transition Models. Rangelands, 32, 23–30. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-10-00077.1 (Cite)
Brown, J. R. (2010). Ecological Sites: Their History, Status, and Future. Rangelands, 32, 5–8. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-10-00089.1 (Cite)
Duniway, M. C., Bestelmeyer, B. T., & Tugel, A. (2010). Soil Processes and Properties That Distinguish Ecological Sites and States. Rangelands, 32, 9–15. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-10-00090.1 (Cite)
Gilgert, W., & Zack, S. (2010). Integrating Multiple Ecosystem Services Into Ecological Site Descriptions. Rangelands, 32, 49–54. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-10-00086.1 (Cite)
Karl, J. W. (2010). Spatial predictions of cover attributes of rangeland ecosystems using regression kriging and remote sensing. Rangeland Ecology and Management, 63, 335–349. doi:10.2111/RED-D-09-00074.1 (Cite)
Karl, J. W., & Herrick, J. E. (2010). Monitoring and Assessment Based on Ecological Sites. Rangelands, 32, 60–64. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-10-00082.1 (Cite)
Karl, J. W., Herrick, J. E., Eaton, M., & Mackinnon, C. (2010). Uses and benefits of consistent indicators and scalable sample design for NLCS local-to-national data needs. In M. Eaton & P. B. Landres (Eds.), . Presented at the Decade of Discovery in the National Landscape Conservation System, Fort Collins, CO: USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station. (Cite)
Karl, J. W., Laliberte, A. S., & Rango, A. (2010). Spatial dependence of predictions from image segmentation: a method to determine appropriate scales for producing land-management information (Vol. Vol. XXXVIII-4/C7). Presented at the GEOBIA 2010. (Cite)
Karl, J. W., & Maurer, B. A. (2010). Multivariate correlations between imagery and field measurements across scales: comparing pixel aggregation and image segmentation. Landscape Ecology, 24, 591–605. doi:10.1007/s10980-009-9439-4 (Cite)
Karl, J. W., & Maurer, B. A. (2010). Spatial dependence of predictions from image segmentation: a variogram-based method to determine appropriate scales for producing land-management informatino. Ecological Informatics, 5, 194–202. doi:10.1016/j.ecoinf.2010.02.004 (Cite)
Knapp, C. N., Fernandez-Gimenez, M. E., & Kachergis, E. (2010). The Role of Local Knowledge in State-and-Transition Model Development. Rangelands, 32, 31–36. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-10-00083.1 (Cite)
Moseley, K., Shaver, P. L., Sanchez, H., & Bestelmeyer, B. T. (2010). Ecological Site Development: A Gentle Introduction. Rangelands, 32, 16–22. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-10-00087.1 (Cite)
Stringham, T. K., & Repp, J. P. (2010). Ecological Site Descriptions: Consideration for Riparian Systems. Rangelands, 32, 43–48. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-10-00085.1 (Cite)
Talbot, C. J., Campbell, S. B., Hansen, M., & Price, A. B. (2010). Information Technologies and Ecological Site Descriptions. Rangelands, 32, 55–59. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-10-00084.1 (Cite)
Townsend, L. (2010). Ecological Site Descriptions: Developmental Considerations for Woodlands and Forests. Rangelands, 32, 37–42. doi:10.2111/RANGELANDS-D-10-00079.1 (Cite)

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